Jews in New York City



Jews in New York City (judíos en la ciudad de Nueva York) aparecen mencionados al comienzo en The sun also rises, la novela de Ernest Hemingway. Al final una aclaración sobre los diferentes judíos

The first Jewish settlement in what became the United States was in Dutch New Amsterdam (1654), which is now known as New York City. Since then, Jews have settled in New York City in large numbers. As of 2014, there are 1.5 million Jews in New York City.
The number of Jews in New York City soared throughout the beginning of the 20th century and reached a peak of 2 million in the 1950s, when Jews constituted one-quarter of the city's population. New York City's Jewish population then began to decline because of low fertility rates and migration to suburbs and other states, particularly California and Florida. A new wave of Ashkenazi and Bukharian Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union began arriving in the 1980s and 1990s. Sephardic Jews, including Syrian Jews and other Jews of non-European origin, have also lived in New York City since the late 19th century. Many Jews, including the newer immigrants, have settled in Queens, south Brooklyn, and the Bronx, where at present most live in middle-class neighborhoods.
The number of Jews is especially high in Brooklyn, where 561,000 residents—one out of four inhabitants—is Jewish. As of 2012, there are 1.1 million Jews in New York City. Borough Park, known for its large Orthodox Jewish population, had 27.9 births per 1,000 residents in 2015, making it the neighborhood with the city's highest birth rate. However, the most rapidly growing community of American Orthodox Jews is located in Rockland County and the Hudson Valley of New York, including the communities of Monsey, Monroe, New Square, Kiryas Joel, and Ramapo.
The first synagogue, the Sephardi Congregation Shearith Israel, was established in 1682, but it did not get its own building until 1730. Over time, the synagogue became dominant in Jewish life, organizing social services and mandating affiliation for all New York Jews. Even though by 1720 Ashkenazim outnumbered Sephardim, the Sephardi customs were retained.
An influx of German and Polish Jews followed the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. The increasing number of Ashkenazim led to the founding of the city's second synagogue, B'nai Jeshurun, in 1825. Several others followed in rapid succession, including the first Polish one, Congregation Shaare Zedek, in 1839. In 1845, the first Reform temple, Congregation Emanu-El of New York opened.
The thirty five years beginning in 1881 experienced the largest wave of immigration to the United States ever. Following the assassination of Alexander II of Russia, for which many blamed "the Jews", there was a vast increase in anti-Jewish pogroms there – possibly with the support of the government – and numerous anti-Jewish laws were passed. The result was that over two million Jews emigrated to America, more than a million of them to New York.
Benjamin Schafler, New York city, 1928
Benjamin Schafler, New York city, 1928
These immigrants tended to be young and relatively irreligious, and were generally skilled – especially in the clothing industry, which would soon dominate New York's economy. By the end of the nineteenth century, Jews "dominated related fields such as the fur trade." (Jews in New York City, from Wikipedia)

Para saber
Ashkenazim se origina de los judíos que se asentaron en el Rin, en el oeste de Alemania y el norte de Francia. El lenguaje tradicional es el Yiddish. Bukharian Jews son judíos de Asia central que históricamente hablaban Bukhori, un dialecto Tajik-Persa. Desde la disolución de la Unión Soviética la gran mayoría emigró a Israel o a los EEUU. Syrian Jews vivían en la moderna Siria. Sephardi Jews vivían en España y Portugal de donde emigraron en el siglo 15. Orthodox Judaism es el judaísmo que suscribe a la tradición de la revelación y adhiere a la interpretación y aplicación de las leyes y éticas de la Torah.
De la web
9 Famous Anti-Semitic People: Were Roald Dahl, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and Ezra Pound anti-Semitic? Well, I didn´t know it, but it´s never too late to learn…

Artículos relacionados
El sol también se levanta, traducción de algunos párrafos de la novela de Hemingway
Joseph Heller, interview – entrevista en inglés
Exodus, la novela de León Uris sobre la fundación del estado de Israel

Si tenés entre 1 y 100 años ya podés aprender inglés con nosotros (387-5723965)