Harlem Renaissance

The Harlem Renaissance (El renacimiento de Harlem) provocó un cambio en la sociedad norteamericana y dio un nuevo impulso a las artes. Al final los Harlem Hellfighters y African-American Great Migration
The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural, social, and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem, New York, spanning the 1920s. During the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement". The Movement also included the new African-American cultural expressions across the urban areas in the Northeast and Midwest United States affected by the African-American Great Migration, of which Harlem was the largest. The Harlem Renaissance was considered to be a rebirth of African-American arts. Though it was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City, many francophone black writers from African and Caribbean colonies that lived in Paris were also influenced by the Harlem Renaissance.
The Harlem Renaissance is generally considered to have spanned from about 1918 until the mid-1930s. Many of its ideas lived on much longer. The zenith of this took place between 1924 (when Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life hosted a party for black writers where many white publishers were in attendance) and 1929 (the year of the stock market crash and the beginning of the Great Depression).

During the early portion of the 20th century, Harlem was the destination for migrants from around the country, attracting both people seeking work from the South, and an educated class who made the area a center of culture, as well as a growing "Negro" middle class. The district had originally been developed in the 19th century as an exclusive suburb for the white middle and upper middle classes; its affluent beginnings led to the development of stately houses, grand avenues, and world-class amenities such as the Polo Grounds and the Harlem Opera House. During the enormous influx of European immigrants in the late 19th century, the once exclusive district was abandoned by the white middle class, who moved farther north.
The Gazette, Elaine, Arkansas, 1919
The Gazette, Elaine, Arkansas, 1919
Harlem became an African-American neighborhood in the early 1900s. In 1910, a large block along 135th Street and Fifth Avenue was bought by various African-American realtors and a church group. Many more African Americans arrived during the First World War. Due to the war, the migration of laborers from Europe virtually ceased, while the war effort resulted in a massive demand for unskilled industrial labor. The Great Migration brought hundreds of thousands of African Americans to cities such as Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, and New York.
Despite the increasing popularity of Negro culture, virulent white racism, often by more recent ethnic immigrants, continued to affect African-American communities, even in the North. After the end of World War I, many African-American soldiers—who fought in segregated units such as the Harlem Hellfighters—came home to a nation whose citizens often did not respect their accomplishments. Race riots and other civil uprisings occurred throughout the US during the Red Summer of 1919, reflecting economic competition over jobs and housing in many cities, as well as tensions over social territories.
Para saber
La gran migración (The Great Migration) fue un movimiento de 6 millones de afro-americanos fuera de las zonas rurales hacia el noreste, medio oeste y el oeste que ocurrió entre 1916 y 1970.
El regimiento de infantería 369 participó en la Primera y Segunda Guerra Mundial. Consistía principalmente en afro-americanos. El regimiento fue bautizado como los Harlem Hellfighters por los alemanes debido a su fiereza.
El verano rojo (The Red Summer) se refiere al verano de 1919 que fue marcado por cientos de muertes y heridos a través de los Estados Unidos, como resultado de luchas raciales que ocurrieron en más de tres docenas de ciudades. En casi todos los casos los blancos atacaron a los afro-americanos.
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