Second Anglo–Afghan War



La segunda Guerra Anglo-Afgana (Second Anglo–Afghan War) se llevó a cabo entre tropas indias (bajo el protectorado inglés) y los afganos en el siglo 19. Al final: Julio Argentino Roca y la conquista del desierto (en inglés)

The Second Anglo–Afghan War (د افغان-انګرېز دويمه جګړه) was fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan. The war ended after the British emerged victorious against the Afghan rebels and the Afghans agreed to let the British attain all of their geopolitical objectives from the Treaty of Gandamak. Most of the British and Indian soldiers withdrew from Afghanistan. The Afghan tribes were permitted to maintain internal rule and local customs but they had to cede control of the area's foreign relations to the British, who, in turn, guaranteed the area's freedom from foreign military domination. This was aimed to oppose expansion by the Russian Empire into India.

After tension between Russia and Britain in Europe ended with the June 1878 Congress of Berlin, Russia turned its attention to Central Asia. That same summer, Russia sent an uninvited diplomatic mission to Kabul. Sher Ali Khan, the Amir of Afghanistan, tried unsuccessfully to keep them out. Russian envoys arrived in Kabul on 22 July 1878, and on 14 August, the British demanded that Sher Ali accept a British mission too.
Sikh regiment with prisoners
Sikh regiment with prisoners
The Amir not only refused to receive a British mission, but threatened to stop it if it were dispatched. Lord Lytton, the viceroy, ordered a diplomatic mission to set out for Kabul in September 1878 but the mission was turned back as it approached the eastern entrance of the Khyber Pass, triggering the Second Anglo–Afghan War.
 A British force of about 50,000 fighting men, mostly Indians, was distributed into military columns which penetrated Afghanistan at three different points. An alarmed Sher Ali attempted to appeal in person to the Russian Tsar for assistance, but unable to do so, he returned to Mazar-i-Sharif, where he died in 1879.
Amir Khan in the centre, with British officers in 1879
Amir Khan in the centre, with British officers in 1879
With British forces occupying much of the country, Sher Ali's son and successor, Mohammad Yaqub Khan, signed the Treaty of Gandamak in 1879 to prevent a British invasion of the rest of the country.


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